Indian Independence struggles

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The republic of India gained its independence from British on 15th August 1947. At the midnight of this day, the British rulers handed over the country to its Leaders ending a remarkable struggles for independence. India’s first Prime Minister is Jawaharlal Nehru.

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The British East India Company Logo
The British East India Company came to India  for trading cotton, silk and tea. They started as a trading company but gradually became the ruler of the country. India’s first independence movement against British East India company was started in 1857 and its aim was to end the British rule in India. After quashing the rebellion, the British government took over the rule of India from British East India Company. The British established a cellular jail in Port Blair in Andaman and Nicobar islands of India’s eastern coast. Indian freedom fighters were deported to Port Blair for punishment.
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Cellular Jail (Kaala Paani) in Port Blair
During the time of British rule, India had more than 560 princely states. Princely state also known as native state or feudatory state. A princely state was autonomous but they had to give allegiance to the British rulers. Some of the largest princely states were Hyderabad, Gwalior, Baroda, Mysore, Kochi, Jammu and Kashmir.
A crowd of unarmed civilians had gathered in a public garden named as Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab for a peaceful protest to condemn the arrest and deportation of two national leaders , Satya Pal and Saifuddin on 13th April 1919.  The British Indian army under the command of Acting Brigadier- General Ronald Dyer fired into the crowd. According to Indian National Congress, the casualty was more than 1,100 wounded and more than 1,000 were died.
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Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
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Mahatma Gandhi started his strategy of non cooperation movement against British rule in 1920. It was a non violent resistance. In those days salt production and distribution was controlled by the British government and Indians were prohibited from producing and selling salt independently. Indians were forced to buy the heavily taxed imported salt. Gandhiji marched in protest  against this monopoly from western Indian city of Ahmedabad in Gujarat across the state to a small town of Dandi in March 1930. This is known as Dandi March which is also known as Salt Sathyagraha. Dandi March was an important struggle for Independence which was the part of Civil Disobedience Movement led by Gandhiji. 
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Bhagat Singh was a socialist revolutionary and freedom fighter who has executed at the age of 23 for his violence against the British rule. The day they were executed is celebrated as Martyrs Day throughout the country. On 23rd of March 1931, Bhagat Singh along with his friends Sukhdev Thapar and Shivaram Raj guru were hanged to death for the assassination of 21 year old British Police Officer John Saunders who was responsible for leading a lathi charge against Lala Lajpat Rai.
Image result for netaji in congress meetingNetaji Subhash Chandra Bose also has an important role in independence struggle against the British. He joined the civil Disobedience Movement. Later on he became an active member of Indian National Congress and he was chosen as Party president in 1938 and 1939. He resigned from his post and Party in 1940 and formed the Forward Block. He left the country secretly in 1941 traveled to Europe where he sought assistance in his struggle against the British Russians and Germans. He visited Japan in 1943. 

Image result for netaji subhash chandra boseIt was here that he formed the Indian National Army with Indian war prisoners who had served with British Indian Army. Under the Leadership of Netaji, INA attacked part of northeastern India and were able to capture a few portion s as well. However the INA was forced to surrender.  But Bose  was not the one to surrender. He escaped on a plane from Taihoku  Airport. Officially it is said that his plane crashed at Taiwan. At that time Taiwan was ruled by Japanese. He is said have suffered third-degree burns and went into a coma and never came out of it. He died on 18th August 1945. It is strongly suspected that some of the Indian politicians who were interested in political power had a major role in the death of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.
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Due to the endless freedom struggles against British, they agreed to a peaceful transfer of power, which came into effect in August 15th 1947. But they divided India into two independent countries. One is India and other one is Pakistan. Lord Mountbatten read out a message in Delhi from the King of Britain, George VI “Freedom loving people everywhere will wish to share in your celebrations”.

Image result for Dr rajendra prasad first president of indiaDr. Rajendra Prasad was the first President of India. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar wrote India’s constitution which is the longest written constitution in the world. The official Indian Flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya.
Seven Historical cities to remember on the occasion of India’s independence day are Delhi (Red Fort), Ahmedabad (Sabarmathi Ashram), Andaman Islands (Port Blair), Allahabad (Chandra Sekhar Azad Park), Jhansi (Jhansi Fort), Kolkata (Barrackpore) and Mumbai (August Kranti Maidan)
Every year India’s independence day is celebrated on 15th of August by all the proud Indians. 15th of August is observed as a national Holiday throughout the country. Local governments, educational institutions, offices and other organizations conduct the ceremony of flag hoisting all over India. The main venue of independence day celebration is the Red Fort in the capital city of New Delhi.
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